Discussion on the development trend of steel drum structure

Discussion on the development trend of steel drum structure

Yang Wenliang, Xin Qiaojuan

When we vigorously advocate green packaging today, the steel drum packaging industry has begun to start with green packaging. From the perspective of international development trends, in addition to a big step towards green packaging in the whole process of steel drum production and recycling, the main development is the new development of steel drum structure.

Because changing the steel drum structure is a relatively big change, it is related to the universality and identity of the world. Due to the large gap between China's steel drum standards and industrial developed countries, the structure is also not conducive to environmental protection. With the development of foreign economy and trade, our steel drum packaging will one day be rejected by foreigners. This is not alarmist. The ISO standard (draft) of steel drums recently issued by the International Standardization Working Group fully confirms at this point. Therefore, the improvement of China's steel drum structure is imperative, which is also a major trend in the world.

First, the global uniform trend of the dimensions of steel drums

The steel drum is a steel package. Because of its strong material, it is not used only once in other packaging. When steel drums are repeatedly used, it is often necessary to shape and repair the steel drums, but there are large differences in steel drum sizes between China's steel drum standards and international standards. Therefore, it is more difficult to repair the steel drum after it is exported, because large-scale steel drum repair production lines are difficult to repair steel drums of different sizes. However, there are certain difficulties in repairing imported steel drums in China.

With the development of foreign economic and trade, the transportation of steel drums of different sizes will also become a major problem. According to the IS0668 standard, the standard steel drums in Europe and America have the best outer diameter. It can be stacked side by side in ISO containers, so that the most reasonable stacking space can be achieved during transportation. However, due to the difference in size, China's standard steel drums cannot reach this level, which invisibly wastes transportation space and increases transportation costs.

Since steel drums cannot be reused, energy and resources are not fully utilized, resulting in unnecessary waste, and the increase in waste steel drums is not conducive to the environment. Therefore, the improvement of the structural size of the steel drum is imminent.

Second, the emptying capacity of steel drums will become an important quality indicator

China’s closed steel barrels have not changed much from the date of their creation to the present. In use, there is an imperfect structural problem that the contents cannot be completely poured out. The use of the barrel memory residue not only causes waste of the contents, but also causes trouble for reuse or recycling, and pollutes the environment.

In China's current closed steel drums, the bottom of the bucket and the top of the bucket are flat, and the mouth of the bucket is still 75mm away from the vertical corner of the bucket. No matter how the bucket is tilted, the liquid in the bucket is always not clean. Practice has shown that there are always 0.5 to 1 liter of residue in the barrel. In order to pour the residue in the barrel, a small hole is often cut in the top edge of the barrel to make the steel barrel not to be used again, resulting in waste.

The flat-top flat structure of the steel barrel makes the steel barrel infiltrate due to the accumulation of rain water when standing in the open air, causing rust or content pollution in the steel barrel, which also causes environmental pollution and waste of resources.

In order to solve this problem, many experts in the world are seeking solutions. The author has also designed a steel drum structure with a streamlined arched roof. This design is very similar to the ISO standard of the steel drums in the near future, and the barrel mouth is closer to the barrel edge. It seems that this direction of development is unquestionable.

In the draft ISO standard for steel drums, the emptying capacity of steel drums is proposed as an important quality indicator, and the emptying test method for steel drums is also specified in detail. However, there is no such concept in China's steel drum standards. The requirement for the emptying capacity of the steel drum is undoubtedly beneficial to the environmental protection, because when the steel drum is discarded, it will not pollute the environment due to the residue, nor will it be wasted due to the residue.

The flat-top flat structure of the steel barrel makes the steel barrel infiltrate due to the accumulation of rain water when standing in the open air, causing rust or content pollution in the steel barrel, which also causes environmental pollution and waste of resources.

In order to solve this problem, many experts in the world are seeking solutions. The author has also designed a steel drum structure with a streamlined arched roof. This design is very similar to the ISO standard of the steel drums in the near future, and the barrel mouth is closer to the barrel edge. It seems that this direction of development is unquestionable.

In the draft ISO standard for steel drums, the emptying capacity of steel drums is proposed as an important quality indicator, and the emptying test method for steel drums is also specified in detail. However, there is no such concept in China's steel drum standards. The requirement for the emptying capacity of the steel drum is undoubtedly beneficial to the environmental protection, because when the steel drum is discarded, it will not pollute the environment due to the residue, nor will it be wasted due to the residue.

Third, the development trend of steel drum thinning

With the development of the economy and the advancement of science and technology, the steel plate material has been improved, the steel drum production process has been continuously updated, and the material thickness of the steel drum has also developed from thick to thin. We can see the difference from the development of steel drum standards at home and abroad. China's 200-liter steel drum is currently widely used 1.25 mm thick steel plate, which is already thinner than the original 1.5 mm. Most of the foreign countries use steel plates with a thickness of about 0.8 mm, and the steel plates of different thicknesses are used for the barrel body, the bottom of the barrel and the top of the barrel, so that the use value is optimal. From this point of view, our raw materials are really wasted.

Some people have calculated that China's current annual output of 200 liters of closed steel drums is 30 million, the net weight of 1.25mm thick steel drums is 22.Skg/only, and the net weight of 1.0mm thick steel drums is 17.6kg, each steel. The barrel reduces the steel consumption by 4.8kg/piece. Then, 30 million steel drums save 147,000 tons of steel, which is calculated at 4,200 yuan per ton, saving RMB 617.4 million per year. If it is produced with 0.8mm material, it can save 102 million yuan per year. This is not a small amount!

At present, a small number of enterprises in China have trial-produced thin steel drums, and their quality inspection results can meet the requirements of national standards. However, because the concept of equivalent packaging is not accepted by most people, it has been hindered. Some people think that this is a cut-throat, and that product quality will be affected. In fact, the thinning of steel drums is not a cut-off, not a counterfeit product. This is the result of improving the structure, process and deep processing under the premise of ensuring product function. The thinning of steel drums is a symbol of technological development. The thinning of steel drums is the development trend of the world steel drums. The purpose is to save resources and achieve the purpose of protecting the environment.

Fourth, the development trend of steel barrel process structure

The most serious environmental pollution caused by steel drums is the leakage of steel drums. Because the steel drum is extremely versatile, it contains food, petroleum products, chemical products, medicines, etc., and some are highly toxic; some are easily reacted with the outside world to cause corrosion or pollution; Flammable and explosive...

Over the years, due to the leakage of steel drums, I do not know how many accidents occurred, causing much damage, resulting in environmental pollution.

The leakage of the steel drum is mainly caused by the quality problem of the weld seam of the steel barrel and the sealing of the bottom of the barrel. In order to solve this problem, China's steel drum structure has been improved from the original five-layer rectangular crimping to seven-layer circular curling, and some have also improved the semi-automatic seam welding machine to fully automatic, thereby improving the quality of the steel drum and reducing the quality. leakage. However, due to the limitations of the process structure, steel drum leakage is still difficult to eliminate.

At present, in the developed countries in the West, in order to prevent the leakage of steel drums, the seams of steel drums are all laser welding technology. The steel drum thus produced has more than twice the drop resistance and leakage resistance than the process structure.

V. Development plan of steel barrel mouth structure

Since the connection between the coil of the steel drum sealer and the top of the bucket is stamped, it is often leaked here to contaminate the environment with contents. In order to solve this problem, it is envisaged to adopt an integrated closure of the top injection port and the venting opening, that is, directly punching and rolling the thread on the top of the barrel. Of course, this structure has not been tried yet, but it has been used in small-capacity steel drum structures, but it is generally a gland type with no threads.

Because the integrated closure has no seams, it is of course impossible to create leaks here and pollute the environment. At present, there are many patents for closures in the world, and many experts are studying them. I believe that there will be progress soon.

This joint-free barrel closure structure proposes a development idea of ​​a ridge, which can be called the development direction of environmentally friendly steel drums.

Sixth, the development of special steel drum structure

There are many special steel drums for special products, which often cause accidents and pollute the environment due to unreasonable structure.

For example, steel drums used for calcium carbide packaging in China have structural problems that are not conducive to environmental protection. Because calcium carbide is easy to react with oxygen and moisture in the air, it causes "weathering" of calcium carbide to produce acetylene gas. Therefore, once the calcium carbide in the steel drum is "weathered", air pollution is first caused, and secondly, acetylene is flammable and explosive, which may cause a fire or explosion accident.

The structure of China's calcium carbide barrels has been developed for five generations. A generation is better than a generation. The first generation is a purely closed structure, the second generation is a non-closed structure; the third generation is a pressure relief valve structure; the fourth generation is a vacuum closed structure of the winding; the fifth generation is a nitrogen-filled sealing structure. After this bumpy development process, it has not been perfect yet. Many people in the packaging industry have worked hard for them, and finally have come out of a road. Now they are gradually seeing the bright future.

At present, the fifth generation nitrogen-filled sealing structure is used for the structure of the calcium carbide barrel. Its barrel and lid are sealed with a crimp.

In addition to the barrel seal and the lid of the barrel, there are two small openings on the top of the barrel to fill the nitrogen to prevent the calcium carbide from reacting with the outside. This packaging method is scientific, but the nitrogen-filled structure is not scientific. The two/7 orifices on the top of the bucket are filled with nitrogen while the other is used to vent air. Because nitrogen is lighter than air, the air is below, and the nitrogen is above. Therefore, the nitrogen filled in can not completely squeeze out the air in the barrel, and the nitrogen gas will be discharged first, forming a "nitrogen short circuit". In order to solve this problem, the author has developed a new type of nitrogen-filling structure, in which two small openings are placed at the top of the barrel and at the bottom of the barrel, and the upper part is filled with nitrogen gas, and the air is discharged from the lower part, so that the space inside the barrel is completely filled with nitrogen, thereby The formation of acetylene is suppressed. In this way, not only the air pollution of acetylene is eliminated, but also the "weathering" loss and accident rate of calcium carbide are reduced.

7. Auxiliary materials in steel drum structure need further development

Due to the current structural limitations, steel drum products require a lot of auxiliary materials, such as sealing packing, sealing ring, inner coating and so on.

The steel drum is sealed with a packing, which is called a sealant. When the bottom of the steel drum is sealed with the barrel body, the sealing glue fills the gap of the curling edge to seal, which can effectively improve the leakage resistance of the steel drum. The sealing structure of the steel drum requires good compatibility of the sealing filler, high temperature stability and the like. Because steel drums are widely used and contain a wide variety of goods, if some goods are incompatible with the sealing packing, chemical reactions and corrosion may occur, thereby destroying the sealing performance of the packing and causing leakage pollution. Deterioration or modification of the contents. The ideal sealing packing has not yet been developed and needs further development.

The sealing ring for the steel drum is used for sealing the pressing portion of the barrel screw ring and the top of the barrel, and the sealing between the barrel lid and the barrel mouth, and a rubber ring or a plastic ring is used. In practice, it has been found that some of the contents can melt a certain seal ring and cause pollution, so the seal ring should also have compatibility. In foreign countries, a new material seal for a variety of materials is under development.

The inner coating is generally used in special steel drums. For steel drums used for foods such as honey, the internal coating requirements must be non-toxic, non-corrosive, non-shedding, etc., otherwise it will cause pollution. The internal coatings are also for further study.

Eight, steel barrel structural materials must be beneficial for recycling

The main treatment method for waste steel drums is to melt the waste barrel into steel ingots. In repeated recycling, the general steel drum itself does not lose strength. However, problems arise when recycling tinplate barrels and galvanized buckets. Due to the small amount of tin or zinc, even if it is less than 0.01%, it may form hardening in steel, which makes it difficult to roll steel later. Therefore, only a small number of tinplate barrels and galvanized barrels are directly used for furnace recovery. In recent years, some people have also designed and produced a double metal barrel, and some steel barrel sealers are made of materials such as aluminum or copper, which causes more trouble for recycling. Therefore, when producing steel drums, the possible impact on the environment and the final treatment should be fully considered and recycled and reused as appropriate.

In foreign countries, there has been a tendency to gradually replace coated steel sheets with steel sheets coated with various coatings, which is not only conducive to environmental protection, but also helps to reduce packaging costs.

Nine, steel barrel ring and corrugation can not be replaced

The ring-shaped ribs and corrugations after the thinning of the steel drum will be more valued because it can increase the strength of the barrel and reduce the possibility of deformation of the steel barrel due to external force. According to research by some foreign experts, the steel ring ring and corrugation have an important role, which is to reduce the flow rate of the contents. The steel drum is filled with flammable and explosive materials, especially fluids. When the steel drum is loaded and unloaded and transported, the material will flow back and forth in the steel drum due to shaking, which may cause friction with the inner wall of the steel drum, which may cause heat or static electricity. When heat or static electricity accumulates to a certain extent and reaches a flash point or discharge, a burning or explosion accident may occur. The ring ribs and corrugations in the steel barrel increase the frictional movement resistance between the inner container and the barrel wall, which can greatly avoid accidents.

Previously, companies blindly removed the corrugations or ring ribs of steel drums. It is also said that the development direction of the steel drum structure is a one-time use of steel drums, not ring ribs and corrugations. This is undoubtedly extremely unscientific. There have been many accidents involving the burning and explosion of steel drums in China, and this has caused serious pollution. However, the analysis of the causes is not clear and has not attracted attention. Therefore, in the future, despite the great development of steel drums, ring and corrugation are not allowed. No.

X. The shape and structure of steel drums will be developed into practical and multi-variety

Looking at the development of Miao Pan and the village, the savings will be a major trend in steel drum packaging. Most of the current steel drums are cylindrical, and cylindrical packaging is not economical. Some people have calculated that the cylindrical barrel has a smaller volume of about a quarter of a cylindrical barrel and a square steel barrel, which means that less than a quarter of the contents are contained. Although the square barrels use a little more plate than the cylindrical barrels, they are only a small part of the value of the contents. Therefore, for steel drums that are mainly used for storage and transportation, square barrels are much more economical than round barrels. This is illustrated by the popular 4 liter rectangular barrels at home and abroad. This shape of the steel drum not only saves packaging costs, but also saves transportation costs. What's more, the square barrel has both beautiful and generous features.

Of course, this development trend is not limited to one type of square barrel. With the development of economic technology and the improvement of people's aesthetic taste, there will be many shapes of the bowl, such as a round table shape, a polygonal shape, an oblate shape, a flat square shape or the like. More varied shapes.

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