How does sports injury occur?

A. Prevention of sports trauma

Insufficient awareness of prevention of sports injuries is often the main cause of sports injuries. Many coaches, physical education teachers and athletes have the misconception of "no pain, no gain" . They think that sports trauma is only a small problem that is often used in daily training and competition. To improve performance, athletes must suffer hard and It is a test, and the wounded are inevitable in this process. Therefore, in daily training and competitions, there has been no active measures to prevent sports injuries. After the sports trauma, there is no reason to analyze the accidents, and even less to summarize the lessons learned from the painful experience. As a result, similar accidents occurred repeatedly.

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B. The athlete itself

In the process of preventing sports injuries, the athletes themselves must bear certain responsibilities, because only they are the people who know themselves the most, and only the athletes themselves really know their abilities. Of course, only they can decide whether to obey or not. The coach and the physical education teacher's guidance, and whether or not to abide by the rules of the sports competition.

1.   Preparation activities (warm-up exercise)

The purpose of the preparation activities is to improve the excitement of the central nervous system before the formal training or competition through a variety of different exercises, so as to enhance the activities of various organs and systems in the human body, so that the human body can quickly enter the tension from a static state. The state of activity, to maximize the efficiency of work during formal sports. In addition, preparation activities can also make the body heat and strengthen the function of the respiratory and circulatory system, and reduce the viscosity of soft tissues such as muscles and ligaments, increase its elasticity and stretch, increase the range of joint activity, and reduce the chance of soft tissue injury. . Some common problems associated with preparation activities include:

Not doing preparatory activities or preparing for activities are not adequate

Preparation activities are too long apart from formal training or competition

Only do general preparation activities without special preparation activities

   The amount of preparation activities is too large

Preparing for the event is too fast and fierce, contrary to the principle of gradual progress

 

2.   Fitness status

a)   Muscle strength and muscular endurance

The athlete's muscle strength is insufficient and the chance of injury is great. Because muscle fibers that are under-exercised are more susceptible to injury during strenuous exercise, and weaker muscles are more likely to be strained by stronger muscles. For example, athletes (especially high-speed items) have too much strength in the quads (muscles in front of the thighs), and it is easy to strain the posterior thigh muscles when exerting force. In addition, insufficient muscle strength can also reduce the stability of the joint and thus cause joint-related damage. For example, insufficient muscle strength around the shoulder joint can easily lead to damage to the shoulder joint (such as dislocation).

If the athlete's muscle endurance is insufficient, it is easy to cause injury due to fatigue. For example, gymnasts often get injured during the game to the last few items because the activity of the cerebral cortex is inhibiting, causing the already established conditional reflex relationship to be affected, and the muscles and joints become reactive. Slow, so caused mistakes.

b)   Softness

Insufficient softness is also an important factor in the injury of soft tissues (muscles, tendons, ligaments, etc.), because if the soft tissue of the muscle is pulled too tight and is forced to stretch, it will be pulled. For example, the hurdler's hind leg muscles have poor softness and are easily strained when placed on the upper column; the softness of the shoulder joint is poor, and it is easy to cause dislocation or damage to adjacent soft tissues when being pulled.

c)   Cardiorespiratory endurance

Poor heart and lung endurance, it is easy to lose the ability to focus and coordinate, it is easy to cause mistakes. In addition, it will also affect the supply of other related organs (such as brain, muscles, etc.), so that fatigue will occur early.

3.   techinque level

Athletes (especially young athletes) are not sufficiently skilled in the special skills, and the conditional reflexes of the movements are not consolidated and they are easily injured. For example, the gymnast's flip-flops are not well mastered, and it is easy to trip over when landing. In addition, technical movement errors, violation of mechanical principles, can also lead to sports injuries. For example, a tennis player often makes a wrong hitting action to cause a "tennis elbow"; a javelin thrower is prone to shoulder and elbow injuries when the elbow is lower than the shoulder when the gun is shot.

4.   Physiological restriction

Some physiological abnormalities, such as flat feet, curvature of the vertebrae, etc., are prone to cause sports injuries. Take running as an example. A medium-sized athlete (about 70 kg) can take more than a thousand steps to run a mile, while the foot must bear a total weight of more than 1,000 tons. It is conceivable that all abnormal physical structures related to this movement can cause chronic sports injuries. In addition, athletes engaged in sports that do not match body shape, such as thin and thin people involved in contact sports (such as baskets, football, etc.), it is easy to be injured because of frequent contact or collision with opponents.

5.   Mental state

The psychological state of athletes is also closely related to the occurrence of sports injuries. Under the following psychological conditions, athletes will be injured:

Poor mood, low mood

Lack of consciousness and enthusiasm for training and competition

Insufficient confidence or high confidence

Strong and eager to seek success

Excessive tension, flustered

Excessive enthusiasm for exercise, do not understand temperance

C. Environment and climate

Some external factors, such as the environment and climate, can also affect the chance of sports trauma.

1.   the weather

When exercising in bad weather, it is prone to sports injuries. For example, in the case of heavy rain, due to the generally low field of view, coupled with the slippery ground, when engaged in high-speed projects such as sprints and bicycles, it is easy to trip over. In addition, the weather is too cold or hot, and it is easy for athletes to cause harm. If you are outdoors for a long time in cold weather, it is prone to frostbite or hypothermia. The preparation activities are not fully done, the muscles are hard, the elasticity is lacking, the coordination of the movements is degraded, and the muscle ligament damage is particularly prone to occur. Conversely, when you are engaged in strenuous exercise in hot weather, the water and salt in the body are excessively lost due to excessive sweating. If you do not get timely supplements, it is prone to cramps or heat exhaustion; if it is humid The weather is also more likely to cause serious consequences of heat stroke.

2.   Light

During the dusk or dawn of the day, especially in the foggy days, due to lack of light and low visibility, the vision is affected, and the nerve reaction is also slow, and in the case of reduced excitability, it is easy to be injured. Conversely, sudden exposure of the eyes to strong light, such as violent sunlight or flashlights, can also cause short-sighted vision loss and injury.

3.   site

The site is not flat or full of debris, and it is easy to sprain or fall when you walk. The ground is too hard, and the shock absorption of the shoes is poor. The impact force on the feet, ankles and knees is large, and it is easy to cause chronic damage. Grounds made of synthetic materials (such as artificial grass fields, plastic runways, etc.), although with large traction, can cause joints (especially knee joints) and tendon ligaments to be injured when they are changed at high speed or sudden direction. In addition, the settings around the training or competition venue, such as glass doors, windows, etc., pose a certain degree of danger to the athletes. For athletes who are fearful and high-spirited, training or competition at a higher position from the ground is also more likely to be injured.

D. Equipment and equipment

The surface of the device is uneven or cracked, the metal part is rusted or is in disrepair, the equipment is improperly installed or placed, and the size or weight is not related to the user (such as the weight of the group A athletes using the weight of the group, the weight of the men's group using the women's athletes) Equipment, children's use of adult racquets, etc.) will increase the chance of sports injuries.

E. Clothing and protective equipment

Wearing inappropriate or inappropriate clothing during exercise, not wearing or using appropriate protective equipment can cause sports injuries.

1.   clothes

Whether the material used in the clothes is poor or the size is too loose or too tight, it can cause damage to the athletes. For example, marathon runners are prone to damage due to the friction of the skin on the inside of the nipple and thighs for a long time. Some athletes and even coaches mistakenly believe that wearing long-sleeved plastic windbreakers for endurance training in hot weather can increase the amount of exercise, thus causing serious consequences of heat stroke.

2. Footwear

If the sneakers have poor shock absorption, they cannot effectively absorb the impact force, so they are likely to cause chronic damage to the legs. The size of the shoes is too loose or too tight. If you don't wear proper socks, the feet and shoes are excessively rubbed, and blisters are easy to produce. If you don't wear socks or socks, the moisture absorption is weak (such as nylon socks). If your feet are in a humid environment for a long time, you will easily suffer from skin diseases such as Hong Kong feet.

3. Protection equipment

Some sports that allow physical contact or impact, such as football, American football, rugby, ice hockey, boxing or other fighting sports, if you are not using or wearing helmets, masks, teethers, etc. during practice or competition. Protective equipment such as ankle guards will increase the chance of injury during exercise.

F. The nature of the sport

The opportunities for sports trauma vary depending on the type of exercise and the degree of risk, and the specific technical characteristics of certain sports can also be factors that constitute sports trauma. Finally, the position of the athlete in the team has a certain relationship with the opportunity of sports trauma.

1.   Contact sports

Some sports that allow a considerable degree of physical contact, such as football, hockey, rugby, etc., have a common purpose, that is, to intercept each other in order to win the opportunity to win the attack, so the athletes have more opportunities for physical contact and collision. The situation of sports injuries will also increase accordingly. In addition, some fighting sports such as boxing are aimed at knocking down opponents. If you do not use proper protective equipment (such as helmets, teethers, etc.), the chances of athletes being injured are higher. When the accident occurred, there was even a danger of losing life.

2.   High risk sports

Some sports, such as gymnastics, nets, diving, skydiving, etc., have a certain degree of risk, so there is a greater chance of sports injuries. If you do not do adequate or appropriate protection work when you do it, the chance of a sports injury is even greater.

3.   Special technical features

Different sports have their own special technical characteristics, which is prone to the so-called "special multi-incidence" (Liu Jinsheng, 1989). For example, weightlifters are easy to hurt the waist and knees; throwing athletes are easy to hurt the shoulders and elbows; gymnasts are easy to hurt the waist, wrists and shoulders; baskets and volleyball players are easy to hurt knees and knees; hurdlers are vulnerable to injury to the back of the thighs. Moreover, the requirements of special technical characteristics contradict the weakness of human anatomy, and are also the main factors that constitute sports trauma. For example, baskets, volleyball training or competitions, many times in the knee joint in a half-squatting position to defend, take off, start, force and other actions, although this position is indeed beneficial to the above activities, but hinder The levers on the upper and lower ends of the knee joint are longer, but the surrounding muscles are not protected by the muscles, and the ligaments are also in a relaxed state at this time, so the knee joints are concentrated in "long torque", "small protection", and tibia (knee bone). In the case of the situation, it is prone to problems such as joint instability and tibia strain.

4.   Position in the team

The position of the athlete in the team is sometimes the key to sports trauma. For example, in football, the former midfielder is often intercepted by the opponent's defense, so the chance of injury is naturally greater than that of the other players in the team.

G. Opponent and referee

Whether the athlete is willing to comply with the rules of the game, the size and behavior of the opponent, the enforcement of the referee, etc., are closely related to the athlete's chance of injury.

1.   competition rules

Exercise is an activity that follows the rules, and the rules reflect the safe behavior acceptable to everyone in the exercise, so if the athlete does not follow the rules, it will increase the chance of sports trauma.

2.   opponent

In some contact sports, athletes are particularly vulnerable if their opponents are large and rude and do not follow the rules of the game.

3.   referee

Even if the rules are set to be perfect, it depends on the proper enforcement of the referee. If the referee's law enforcement is too lax, especially in the contact sports, the chances of the athlete being injured due to physical contact or collision will be greatly improved.

H. Training and competition arrangements

Sports, training and competition are inseparable, and Sharkey (1986) even believes that training accounts for 99% of the weight. Therefore, if the training and competition are not properly arranged, it is easy to cause sports injuries.

1.   Amount of exercise

Exercise training must be gradual, so that the body has sufficient time to adapt to the load, in order to receive the expected results, whether the amount of exercise is too fast or too much, it will only be self-defeating. In addition, the local burden is too large, which is also the main cause of sports injuries. For example, in order to develop the jumping power, some athletes specialize in frog jump, step jump, weight jump and other exercises in the same section or the same week of training sessions, which will cause the partial burden of the legs to be too heavy and increase the legs. The chance of an injury. Some athletes also concentrated on training another limb because of one limb injury. However, the total time and amount of training did not be reduced. As a result, other parts of the body were also damaged.

2.   Activity space

Under the restrictions of Hong Kong and the small population, there is a lack of activity space, so that training sometimes has to be confined to a small space. If the activity belongs to contact or requires high speed, the athlete is physically The chance of injury from contact or collision increases. Furthermore, activities that do not follow the site division, arbitrarily traverse the throwing zone or throw in the non-throwing zone, and do not follow the direction indicated (such as running, cycling, skating), etc., can cause sports injuries.

3.   The number of participants

By the same token, if there are too many people involved in the activity, the space for activities of each person will be relatively reduced. In the case of crowded people, there are many opportunities for athletes to contact and collide, which is naturally easy to cause damage. Or a trainer or a physical education teacher, because the number of athletes or students who are responsible at the same time is too large, and the lack of adequate guidance and protection during the practice of the equipment is prone to damage caused by mistakes.

4.   Individual differences

Each athlete is a single individual. It is said that people of different ages and genders have different anatomical and physiological characteristics, even if they are the same age and gender, their physical development and health status, fitness level, and exercise technology. Levels, mental states, etc. will vary. Therefore, the content, weight and arrangement of the training course can not be the same. If only the same amount of exercise and intensity are given to all athletes, it is easy for everyone to learn the same level of difficulty, athletes with poor fitness and skill level. In the event of an injury, the athlete who has been injured in the injury will inevitably become more serious.

5.   Correct technology

Athletes who fail to master the correct skills, the teaching demonstrations themselves are not correct, or the training methods are wrong, can lead to sports trauma. For example, recent studies have found that deep movements can put a great deal of pressure on the ligaments that support the knee joints, which can lead to knee injuries and chronic deterioration over time.

6.   Understanding of training theory and method

Athletes, coaches, and physical education teachers must all understand the relevant sports training theories and methods, because failure to follow the training principles, any errors in organizational methods or teaching arrangements can lead to damage. For example, the arrangement of the amount of exercise and the mastery of technology, if not from small to large, from easy to difficult, step by step, gradually improve, different treatment of athletes, etc., will increase the chance of sports trauma.

7.   Competition arrangement

If there is a big difference in the age, technique or shape of the athletes on both sides of the game, and the rules allow everyone to play in the same field (especially those with physical contact), it will increase the chance of sports trauma. In addition, the choice of course routes is inappropriate (for example, running or cycling on busy roads without special traffic arrangements), and the order of the projects is unreasonable (for example, endurance projects in track and field or swimming competitions are held one after another) Or temporary changes in the time of the competition (especially early) are important causes of sports injuries.

 

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